A. Lý thuyết nên nắm

I. KHÁI NIỆM

1. Câu trần thuật là câu thuật lại tiếng nói thẳng.

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+ Lời nói thẳng (direct speech): là diễn tả lại đúng đúng mực điều ai này đã nói (còn gọi là trích dẫn). Hình thức của câu tiếng nói thẳng sẽ được đặt vào lốt noặc kxay.

Ví dụ: She said ” He is so handsome”. Theo đó, câu "He is so handsome" là khẩu ca thẳng tốt câu trực tiếp

+ Lời nói con gián tiếp – câu trần thuật (indirect speech): Là tường thuật lại lời vẫn nói của một người khác dưới dạng gián tiếp, không dùng vết ngoặc kép.

Ví dụ: Lylys said, ”I want lớn go home” -> Lylys said she wanted to lớn go trang chủ là câu gián tiếp (indirect speech)

lúc bọn họ sử dụng câu loại gián tiếp, chúng ta thường nói tới thừa khứ, bởi vậy dạng từ bỏ của rượu cồn trường đoản cú trong câu cũng rất được phân chia làm việc quá khđọng.

2. Các nhiều loại câu tường thuật thông dụng trong giờ đồng hồ Anh

2.1. Câu tường thuật sống dạng câu kể

S + say(s)/said + (that) + S + V

+ says/say lớn + O -> tells/tell + O

+ said to + O ->told+O

Eg: He said to me”I haven’t finished my work” -> He told me he hadn’t finished his work.

2.2. Câu trần thuật sinh hoạt dạng câu hỏi

a. Yes/No questions:

S+asked/wanted lớn know/wondered+if/wether+S+V

Ex: ”Are you angry?”he asked -> He asked if/whether I was angry.

b. Wh-questions:

S + asked(+O)/wanted to know/wondered + Wh-words + S + V.

* says/say lớn + O -> asks/ask + O

* said to lớn + O -> asked + O.

Ex: ”What are you talking about?”said the teacher. -> The teacher asked us what we were talking about.

II. CÁCH CHUYỂN CÂU TRỰC TIẾPhường SANG CÂU GIÁN TIẾP

*

khi chuyển xuất phát từ một tiếng nói thẳng sang gián tiếp khá dễ dàng, chúng ta chỉ việc ghxay nội dung tường thuật sinh sống vùng phía đằng sau lời nói và hạ rượu cồn tự của nó xuống một cấp cho quá khđọng, đại trường đoản cú được đổi khác đến tương xứng. Tuy nhiên, phải để ý một số sự việc sau:

+ Nếu đụng trường đoản cú trần thuật (reporting verb) phân chia nghỉ ngơi những thì bây giờ chúng ta không thay đổi thì (tense) của đụng từ bao gồm, đại từ hướng đẫn với các trạng từ chỉ nơi chốn cũng như trạng từ chỉ thời hạn trong câu trực tiếp khi đưa thanh lịch loại gián tiếp.Ví dụ:- He says: “I’m going khổng lồ Ha Noi next week.”

⇒ He says he is going khổng lồ Ha Noi next week.

+ Nếu hễ trường đoản cú trần thuật (reporting verb) của câu ở thì thừa khứ đọng thì phải lùi rượu cồn từ bỏ bao gồm về thừa khứ đọng một bậc Khi chuyển từ lời nói trực tiếp (direct speech) sang tiếng nói con gián tiếp (indirect / reported speech) theo phép tắc sau:

* Biến thay đổi thì của cồn trường đoản cú với động tự kmáu thiếu thốn theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu loại gián tiếp

Present simplePast simple
Present continuousPast continuous
Present perfectPast perfect
Past simplePast perfect
Present perfect continuousPast perfect continuous
Past continuousPast perfect continuous
willwould
cancould
must/ have tohad to
maymight

* Biến thay đổi đại từ bỏ và những tự hạn định theo bảng sau:

 

Câu trực tiếp

Câu gián tiếp

Chủ ngữIhe/ she
YouI/ We/ They
WeWe/ They
Tân ngữmehim/ her
youme/ us/ them
usus/ them
Đại từ bỏ sngơi nghỉ hữumyhis/ her
yourmy/ our/ their
ourour/ their
Đại tự ssống hữuminehis/ hers
yoursmine/ ours/ theirs
oursours/ theirs
Đại trường đoản cú chỉ địnhthisthe/ that
thesethe/ those

* Biến thay đổi trạng ngữ chỉ thời hạn và xứ sở theo bảng sau:

Câu trực tiếp

Câu loại gián tiếp

herethere
nowthen/ at that moment
today/ tonightthat day/ that night
tomorrowthe next day
next weekthe following week
yesterdaythe previous daythe day before
last weekthe week before
agobefore

NOTE: lúc chuyển động từ bỏ các bạn chỉ cần lưu giữ rước đụng từ ngay sát nhà ngữ tuyệt nhất giảm xuống 1 cột tức là:

+ Động trường đoản cú ở cột 1 thì giảm đi cột 2, ( lưu giữ thêm ed lúc chưa phải là đông từ bỏ bất quy tắc)

+ Động trường đoản cú cột 2 thì sút thành cột 3

+ Động từ bỏ cột 3 thêm had phía trước

Tuy nhiên, yêu cầu chăm chú một số trường hợp sau đây ko bớt thì hễ từ:

+ Nói về chân lý, sự thật.

+ Thì vượt khứ chấm dứt.

+ Trong câu tất cả năm xác minh.

Các câu bao gồm cấu trúc sau: if only, as if, as though, wish, would rather, it’s high time, IF một số loại 2, 3 .

B. Bài tập


I. Hoàn thành các câu trong bài xích câu tường thuật.

1. "Where is my umbrella?" she asked.

She asked............................................. ......................

2. "How are you?" Martin asked us.

Martin asked us................................................ ...................

3. He asked, "Do I have sầu lớn bởi it?"

He asked............................................. ......................

4. "Where have you been?" the mother asked her daughter.

The mother asked her daughter.......................................... .........................

5. "Which dress vị you like best?" she asked her boyfriover.

She asked her boyfriover......................................... ..........................

6. "What are they doing?" she asked.

She wanted to lớn know.............................................. .....................

7. "Are you going lớn the cinema?" he asked me.

He wanted to lớn know.............................................. .....................

8. The teacher asked, "Who speaks English?"

The teacher wanted khổng lồ know.............................................. .....................

9. "How vì chưng you know that?" she asked me.

She asked me................................................ ...................

10. "Has Caron talked lớn Kevin?" my friend asked me.

My frikết thúc asked me................................................ ...................

Đáp án

1. She asked where her umbrella was.

2. Martin asked us how we were.

3. He asked if he had lớn vì chưng it.

4. The mother asked her daughter where she had been.

5. She asked her boyfrikết thúc which dress he liked best.

6. She wanted to lớn know what they were doing.

7. He wanted khổng lồ know if I was going to the cinema.

8. The teacher wanted lớn know who spoke English.

9. She asked me how I knew that.

10. My frikết thúc asked me if Caron had talked lớn Kevin.

II. Viết lại những câu sau sử dụng biện pháp nói con gián tiếp.

1. “xuất hiện the door,” he said lớn them.

- He told them...................................................................

2. “Where are you going?” he asked her.

- He asked her where.........................................................

3. “Which way did they go?” he asked.

- He asked... ......................................................................

4. “Bring it baông chồng if it doesn’t fit”, I said to her.

- I told... ............................................................................

5. “Don’t try to lớn open it now,” she said khổng lồ us.

- She told... ........................................................................

6. “Is it going to lớn be a fine day today?” I asked her.

- I asked her... ....................................................................

7. “He’s not at home”, she said.

- She said that... .................................................................

8. “Is the bus station far away?” the girl asked.

- The girl wanted lớn know... ..............................................

9. “Don’t stay out late, Ann” Tom said.

- Tom told Ann... ...............................................................

10. “Please let me borrow your oto,” he said to her.

- He asked... ........................................................................

11. “Jean, have you seen my gloves?” Thomas asked.

- Thomas asked Jean.....


12. Don’t leave the window open, Mary”, I said.

- I told Mary.... ...................................................................

13. “I’ll have sầu a cup of tea with you,” she said.

She said that...

14. “I’ll pay him if I can” she said.

- She said that... ...................................................................

15. “What are you going to vì chưng next summer?” she asked.

- She asked us.... ...................................................................

16. “I’ll phone you tomorrow,” he told Jachồng.

- He told Jachồng that.... .............................................................

17. “Can I sit beside you, Jean?” Tom asked.

- Tom asked Jean.... ..............................................................

18. “I want a camera for my birthday,” he said.

- He said that.... ...................................................................

19. “Don’t keep the door locked,” he said khổng lồ us.

- He told us.... ...................................................................

20. “How long are you going to stay?” I asked hyên ổn.

- I asked hyên how long....

21. “Are you going by train?” she asked me.

- She wanted lớn know.... ..................................................

22. “Don’t use too much hot water,” she said lớn us.

- She asked us.... ..............................................................

23. “Will you come to lớn my party?” she said lớn me.

- She invited me.... ............................................................

24. “Don’t do it again,” she said khổng lồ them.

She told them..................................................................

25. “ Did Mr Brown skết thúc the potatoes lớn you?” she asked.

- She asked.......................................................................

26. “Don’t get your shoes dirty, boys,” she said.

- She told..........................................................................

27. “What bởi you want for lunch today, Peter?” Mary asked.

- Mary asked.......................................................................

28. “Can I borrow your typewriter, Janet?” asked Peter.

- Peter asked if .......................................................................

29. “Why didn’t I get a computer before?” thought the office manager.

- The office manager wondered............................................................

30. “You had better not lover hyên any more money, Elizabeth,’’ said John.

- John advised Elizabeth........................................................................

31. “You stole my best cassette, Amanda!” said John.

- John accused.......................................................................................

32. “ You damaged my bicycle, John!” said Mary.

- Mary accused......................................................................................

33. “When was your little boy born?” said the nurse to lớn Mrs. Bingley.

- The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley...............................................................

34. “You should take more exercise, Mr. Robert,” the doctor said.

- The doctor advised................................................................................

35. “Will I find a job?”, Tim said lớn himself.

- Tim wondered.......................................................................................

36. “I’m sorry I gave you the wrong number,” said Paul to lớn Susan.

- Paul apologized.....................................................................................

37. “When is the first day of your holiday, Peter?” Martha asked.

- Martha asked Peter when.....................................................................

38. “Can I have a new bicycle?” said Anmãng cầu khổng lồ her mother.

- Anna asked............................................................................................

39.. “Don’t leave the house until I get baông chồng, William”, his mother said.

- William’s mother told..........................................................................

40. “Don’t bite your nails,” said Mrs. Rogers to lớn her son.

- Mrs. Rogers told....... .............................................................................

41. “I’ve seen the film three times, Mary” said George.

- George said............................................................................................

42. “I’m sorry, Angela,” said Martin, “I’m afraid I’ve damaged your car.

- Martin apologized..................................................................................

43. “Have you had enough for lunch?” the landlady asked us.

- The landlady asked................................................................................

44. “ John, please don’t tell anyone my new address,” said Mary.

- Mary asked............................................................................................

45. “Breakfast will not be served after 9. 30” said the notice.

- The notice said that..............................................................................

46. “Where is the best place to buy souvenirs?”

- I asked..................................................................................................

47. “Don’t forget lớn bring your passport with you tomorrow”

- She reminded me ................................................................................

48. “Do not write on the wall,” said the teacher lớn the boys.

- The teacher told the boys………………………………………..........

49. “How many jobs have you had since 2000?” the interviewer asked Mr. Simpson.

- The interviewer asked ...........................................................................

50. “Why didn’t you report the incident lớn the police?” the officer asked the frightened witness.

- The officer wanted to know...................................................................

Đáp án

1. He told them khổng lồ open the door.

2. He asked her where she was going.

3. He asked me which way they had gone.

4. I told her to bring it back if it didn’t fit.

5. She told us not khổng lồ try lớn open it then.

6. I asked her whether/ if it was going lớn be a fine day that day.

7. She said that he was not at trang chủ.

8. The girl wanted lớn know whether/ if the bus station was far away.

9. Tom told Ann not to stay out late.

10. He asked her to let him borrow her car.

11. Thomas asked Jean whether/if she had seen his gloves.

12. I told Mary not khổng lồ leave sầu the window open.

13. She said that she would have a cup of tea with me.

14. She said that she would pay hyên if she could.

15. She asked us what we were going to bởi vì the following summer.

16. He told Jaông chồng that he would phone hyên ổn the following day.

17. Tom asked Jean whether/if he could sit beside her.

18. He said that he wanted a camera for his birthday.

19. He told us not lớn keep the door locked.

20. I asked hyên ổn how long he was going to stay.

21. She wanted lớn know whether I was going by train.

22. She asked us not to use too much hot water.

23. She invited me to come to lớn her các buổi tiệc nhỏ.

24. She told them not to lớn vì chưng it again.

25. She asked whether/ if Mr. Brown sent the potatoes to me.

26. She told the boys not to get their shoes dirty.

27. Mary asked what Peter wanted for lunch that day.

28. Peter asked Janet whether/ if he could borrow her typewriter.

29. The office manager wondered why he hadn’t got a computer before.

30. John advised Elizabeth not lớn lkết thúc him any more money.

31. John accused Amanda of stealing his best cassette.

32. Mary accused John of damaging her bicycle.

33. The nurse asked Mrs. Bingley where her little boy had been born.

34. The doctor advised Mr. Robert lớn take more exercise.

35. Tim wondered whether/ if he would find a job.

36. Paul apologized khổng lồ Susan for giving her the wrong number.

37. Martha asked Peter when the first day of his holiday was.

38. Anna asked her mother whether/ if she could have a new bicycle.

39. William’s mother told hyên ổn not khổng lồ leave sầu the house until she got back.

40. Mrs. Rogers told her son not to bite his nails.

41. George said khổng lồ Mary that he had seen the film three times.

42. Martin apologized lớn Angela for having damaged her oto.

43. The landlady asked us whether/if we had had enough for lunch.

44. Mary asked John not khổng lồ tell anyone her new address.

45. The notice said that breakfast would not be served after 9.30.

46. I asked where the best place to lớn buy souvenirs was.

47. She reminded me to lớn bring my passport with me the following day.

48. The teacher told the boys not lớn write on the wall.

49. The interviewer asked Mr. Simpson how many jobs he had had since 2000.

50. The officer wanted khổng lồ know why the frightened witness hadn’t reported the incident lớn the police.

III. Hoàn thành những câu vào bài xích câu trần thuật. Crúc ý sự biến đổi của đại từ với những thì.

1. "What"s the time?" he asked.

→ He wanted lớn know .................................................. .

2. "When will we meet again?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

3. "Are you crazy?" she asked hyên ổn.

→ She asked him .................................................. .

4. "Where did they live?" he asked.

→ He wanted lớn know .................................................. .

5. "Will you be at the party?" he asked her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Can you meet me at the station?" she asked me.

→ She asked me .................................................. .

7. "Who knows the answer?" the teacher asked.

→ The teacher wanted to lớn know .................................................. .

8. "Why don"t you help me?" she asked hyên ổn.

→ She wanted khổng lồ know .................................................. .

9. "Did you see that car?" he asked me.

→ He asked me .................................................. .

10. "Have sầu you tidied up your room?" the mother asked the twins.

→ The mother asked the twins .................................................. .

Đáp án

1. He wanted to lớn know what the time was.

2. She asked me when we would meet again.

3. She asked hlặng if he was crazy.

4. He wanted to lớn know where they had lived.

5. He asked her if she would be at the party.

6. She asked me if I could meet her at the station.

7. The teacher wanted khổng lồ know who knew the answer.

8. She wanted to lớn know why he didn"t help her.

9. He asked me if I had seen that car.

10. The mother asked the twins if they had tidied up their room.

IV. bài tập câu tường thuật requets (positive)

1. "Stop talking, Joe," the teacher said.

→ The teacher told Joe .................................................. .

2. "Be patient," she said to lớn hlặng.

→ She told hlặng .................................................. .

3. "Go to your room," her father said to her.

→ Her father told her .................................................. .

4. "Hurry up," she said to lớn us.

→ She told us .................................................. .

5. "Give me the key," he told her.

→ He asked her .................................................. .

6. "Play it again, Sam," she said.

→ She asked Sam .................................................. .

7. "Sit down, Caron" he said.

→ He asked Caron .................................................. .

8. "Fill in the size, Sir," the receptionist said.

Xem thêm: Tiếng Anh 7 Unit 1: Looking Back Unit 1: My Hobbies, Tiếng Anh 7

→ The receptionist asked the guest .................................................. .